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Did you come across a word on our site that you did not understand? For better comprehension, we have prepared a Glossary for you, where you will find an explanation of all basic and lesser-known terms and their brief explanation in the field of antenna technology, wireless modules, routers, M2M and IoT technologies, electromobility, RFID.


5G technology

5G technology will gradually replace or expand today's very popular LTE networks. It is characterized by a higher baud rate and a; significant reduction in response time. 5G antennas are used in M2M, IoT devices and IoT systems. 5G technology also enables the development of new applications in areas such as virtual and augmented reality, autonomous vehicles and industrial automation.


Active antenna

Active antenna includes an integrated amplifier that amplifies the signal level. Active antennas can be used for both reception and transmission and need to be powered. Nominal power values are around 2.2-5 V. GNSS antennas are a common example of active antennas.

Antenna attachment methods

We offer a wide range of attachment methods: adhesive, mounting, screw, magnetic and soldering.

Antenna efficiency

The efficiency of the antenna is expressed as the ratio of the power radiated by the antenna Pv to the delivered power Pz. The resulting value is then given in %.


Attenuation (loss) is a decrease in signal strength. It is given in decibels (dB). Attenuation is undesirable, it is often caused by mismatch of the RF transmission system. These losses can be caused by impedance, polarization mismatch or it can also be inserted attenuation eg on coaxial cable (which increases in proportion to cable length), connectors and splitters.


Cable adaptor

A cable adapter or pigtail is a portion of an optical fiber, coaxial cable, or other conduit that terminates in a connector on both sides. Adapters connect to a port or interface and thus connect two devices. If you need to change the type of the connector, it is the adapter that will allow you to change it. We will design and manufacture an adapter according to your requirements.


A cloud is a network of servers that are interconnected around the world and function as a single ecosystem. Each server has its own function. These servers are used to store and manage data, launch applications, or deliver content and services. You can access your files and applications online from any Internet-enabled device, so information is available wherever and whenever you need it. The SECTRON CLOUD platform sends data to a secure place on the Internet where it is processed (servers, computers, etc.). The processed data can then be displayed in the form of web pages, individual dashboards, etc.

Coaxial cable

The properties of each coaxial cable determine the properties of their conductors (outer and inner diameter) and the surrounding insulation. The coaxial cable consists of an inner conductor, a dielectric, a shield and a sheath. Antenna cables have an impedance of 50 ohms, or 75 ohms. We offer cables that are used for RF signal transmission in various lengths and we will adjust them according to your wishes.


A connector is a connecting component that is used to connect cables to a device. It provides a mechanical connection with the possibility of repeated connection and disconnection. There are many types of connectors, each with its own characteristics. Most connectors consist of a socket (female) and a plug (male). We offer various types of coaxial connectors such as SMA, U.FL, TNC, BNC, MCX, MMCX, FAKRA, FME.

Wide range of cable, panel and PCB RF connectors.

  • Panel - This type of connector is designed for mounting or soldering to the panel (PCB).
  • Cable - This type of connector is designed to be crimped (attached) to a cable.
  • Reverse - This type of connector has the opposite internal contact with respect to the connector design. Imagine a male SMA connector with a center pin and an internal thread. The reverse male of the SMA connector will then look like a nut, but instead of an inner wire (pin), it will will have a hole.
  • The male looks like a classic nut with a center pin.
  • The female has a screw thread around the perimeter, there is a hole instead of a pin.



A dashboard simplifies the work by speeding up access to the most frequently used information, such as notes, weather, calculator, contacts, directories and the like. Thanks to the dashboard, you do not have to open individual applications and you can also create your own widgets, which you can adapt to your requirements.

Directionality of the antenna

The directionality of the antenna is presented by a directional (radiation) diagram. The radiation diagram is really three-dimensional, but in practice it is represented in most cases by a 2D spatial section in the vertical or horizontal plane. From this diagram, a very important parameter called the antenna radiation angle is determined. It is the angle of the radiation maximum, which is defined by two values, which correspond to a decrease of the maximum field strength by 3 dB.


Electric car

Electric cars run on electric power, have zero local emissions of CO2, NOx and do not produce any harmful substances. In terms of construction and used parts, electric cars are a significantly simpler device than a classic car, which saves on maintenance costs. Driving an electric car is about three times cheaper than driving a car with an internal combustion engine. You can also charge your electric car at home in the garage, at work or in a public place. Another advantage is the quiet operation of the electric car. The engine of an electric car makes no sound, while the engine of a classic car is noisy.


Frequency band

Frequency band means a continuous range of frequencies, defined by a lower and upper cut-off frequency. The difference between the two cutoff frequencies is called the bandwidth.



Gain is one of the most important parameters of the antenna and characterizes its efficiency. Gain indicates an increase in signal strength and is closely related to its directivity. The antenna is a passive element and its gain is achievable (unlike, for example, the gain of the amplifier) solely at the expense of increasing its directivity. It is measured in dBi and dBd depending on the measurement method used.

GLONASS technologies

GLONASS stands for Global Satellite Navigation System. It is a Russian navigation system that provides public users with high-accuracy location and exact time data from anywhere on Earth. The GLONASS principle is similar to the American GPS navigation system, communication takes place only from the satellites to the user, making the receiver passive. GLONASS is primarily used for navigation and tracking of vehicles, aircraft and ships.

GNSS technology

GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) is a designation for satellite systems that are used to pinpoint geographical location. The GLONASS system uses two signals: the Russian Federation operates a system called the Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) and the United States operates a system called the Global Positioning System (GPS). 

GPS technology

GPS technology is the most accurate navigation system that allows you to determine the exact position on the map using an electronic receiver connected to the antenna. GPS location allows the use of navigation, tracking devices or logbooks in cars.

GSM technology

GSM This is a cellular network to which mobile phones connect via the nearest cell. GSM operates on several radio frequencies. The GSM Group has designed a system that uses 2nd generation (2G) digital technology, thanks to which it is possible to make telephone calls, send short SMS text messages and data transmissions. Using a SIM card makes it easy to change your mobile phone.



Hybrid cars use an internal combustion engine or an electric motor to drive them. They are equipped with a large-capacity battery that stores the energy expended during braking, so there is no need to recharge the battery at all.



A complex resistance on alternating current, which is composed of two components of real resistance R and imaginary or reactive reactance X. The unit of impedance is ohm Ω, usually denoted by a capital letter Z. The most common antenna impedance is either 50 or 75 Ω.

Industrial computer

Industrial computers are characterized by their construction, which is resistant to dust, strong shocks and vibrations, high temperatures, water and other negative effects. These computers are used in industrial environments, transportation and wherever high performance and reliability are required.

Insertion attenuation

Attenuation (loss) is a decrease in signal strength. It is marked in decibels (dB). Attenuation is undesirable, it is often caused by mismatch of the RF transmission system, whether it is losses caused by impedance, polarization mismatch, it can also be attenuation inserted eg on coaxial cable (which increases in proportion to cable length), connectors, splitters and connectors.


LTE technology

The full name of the abbreviation LTE is Long Term Evolution. LTE technology builds on the current 3G (UMTS) network and brings several improvements. LTE is the so-called fast internet for communication for mobile devices and data terminals. LTE is based on GSM / EDGE and UMTS / HSPA networks. In the Czech Republic, three frequencies 800, 900 and 1800 MHz are used for LTE.



M2M is machine-to-machine communication. Allows devices that are connected wirelessly or by cable to communicate with other devices that have the same ability. The category of M2M devices includes routers, terminals, modems, switches and industrial computers. These devices are compatible with 2G, 3G and 4G technologies.


A modem is a device that modulates and demodulates a signal, used primarily for data transmission. It is suitable for connecting only one device and providing Internet access. Modems are either integrated on the motherboard, expansion card or external hardware. They are divided into cable ones, which use an RJ11 cable to transmit a signal, which they send via a telephone line to a computer or to a peripheral device. And into wireless, which provide connectivity over 2G (GSM), 3G (UMTS) and 4G (LTE) networks.


A wireless module offers a smart solution for wireless connection. It is a small electronic device installed in machines and devices that enables them to connect to a wireless network to send and receive data.


Monitoring watches and mediates information in real time. In the event of a non-standard situation, you can use the monitoring to detect errors or various deviations earlier and thus prevent possible problems. There are various types of monitoring, such as monitoring of air quality, water level, movement of people and animals, performance of technical equipment, etc.


NarrowBand IoT

NarrowBand IoT (NB-IoT) is a low power technology built on 4G LTE. It is exclusively designed for intermittent transmission of low data and allows all smart devices to be connected to the network from all locations. The advantage of NB-IoT is very low consumption, good range and use of the already built network of the mobile operator, which ensures sufficient coverage outside and inside buildings. To use this technology, you need to have a special SIM card with NB-IoT support.


Passive antenna

The passive antenna is without an amplifier. A passive antenna is a type of antenna that does not require an external power source or energy for its operation.


A cable adapter or pigtail is a portion of an optical fiber, coaxial cable, or other conduit that terminates in a connector on both sides. Adapters connect to a port or interface and thus connect two devices. If you need to change the type of the connector, it is the adapter that will allow you to change it. We will design and manufacture an adapter according to your requirements.


The platform is a working environment (base) in software and hardware form, in which programs, applications, operating systems, computer components work. This environment allows the programs to run smoothly.


Polarization is divided into horizontal or vertical and is selected according to the received transmitter. It describes the position of the transmitting or receiving antenna elements perpendicular to the direction of signal propagation. With horizontal polarization, the antenna elements are placed horizontally. Vertical polarization indicates vertical orientation. Horizontal polarization is used in most parts of the Czech Republic. Vertical polarization is used in densely populated areas - it can more easily deal with difficult terrain.



RFID is a general term for technologies that use radio waves to identify objects.

RFID Active

This technology udrd periodically transmitted pulses directly from the RFID tag, which includes a chip that is mounted on the board and charged by the battery. This information is transmitted to the nearest RFID reader antennas and rocessed. Battery life ranges from 3 to 5 years , then the tag needs to be replaced. However, thanks to the internal battery, they can transmit a signal with a higher power level, which also significantly increases the functional reading distance.

RFID Passive

The main element is a reader that sends pulses to the environment and waits for feedback from nearby tags. These pulses charge the capacitor of the nearby chip and it sends information about its contents back from the reader thanks to this energy.

RFID reader

The RFID reader is used to read and write data to the RFID tag. It evaluates data from read from RFID tags and further processes them, for example, by sending them to a cloud or server for further processing. Readers differ in their performance, number of antenna ports or protocols that they can process.

RFID tag

An RFID tag is a chip that is equipped with an antenna and is capable of transmitting and transcribing data. RFID tags have different sizes and specific properties.


Do you need to connect more computers, do you want to have a quality and fast connection?

A router is a gateway to the Internet for all devices on your home or business network. It allows the connection of multiple computers and devices to one local network (one internet connection). Routers are usually wired, which connect to the Internet and the internal network using an Ethernet cable. And cellular routers, which have the ability to use the network of the mobile operator. Both of these types of routers can further expand the network using a wireless WiFi signal. One of the important features of a wireless router is the range of its signal. Wireless WiFi routers typically support multiple standards and operate in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands.



S11 or input reflection factor is the designation of the ratio of the power of the reflected and successive waves, given in dB. This would not result in energy reflections, but in efficient transmission. The value of the reflected energy from the input terminals of the antenna is expressed in dB and is shown in negative values - ideally as negative as possible. The ideal antenna should have an S11 value of infinity → the antenna would be ideally impedance matched. VSWR 1:1.


A sensor is a device that detects events or changes in a given environment and sends information to the control system. The sensor is used in combination with various converters, which are then used to send data to the required destinations. Using various sensors, it is possible to obtain data on the condition of the goods, such as transport temperature, humidity level, water level, shocks, or damage.

Signal level

The signal level is given in dBm and represents the ratio of the current signal level to the 1mW reference value. The basis of wireless information transmission is an antenna, which is used to receive and transmit a radio signal. The antenna must be chosen appropriately so that it meets the requirements of the installation and has the required properties. Needless to mention a saying is used in antenna technology, the best amplifier is the antenna itselr. The use of preamplifiers can cause other problems.


A switch or network switch is a hardware device that physically connects the cables of network elements (eg printers, modems) together. It sends the received data exclusively to the specified recipient, thus utilizing the connected devices individually. The switch works efficiently and does not slow down the entire computer network.



Industrial high-speed terminals provide wireless connectivity for fast information transfer. Terminals for industrial applications are designed, for example, for transport, to control production processes, agriculture or healthcare.



The VSWR parameter is a ratio that numerically expresses the degree of impedance matching of the input terminals of the antenna to the line (hereinafter transmitter and receiver) to which it is connected. Usually, an impedance value of 50 Ohm is calculated. In order to maintain the most efficient transmission of energy through the antenna, the ratio must be close to 1: 1. If the antenna is not adjusted, energy is reflected. The reflected waves can then create standing waves. This causes attenuation by impedance mismatch, further overheating, in the worst case scenario, damage to the transmitting / receiving part.



A widget is an interactive element of your computer that displays the current content of the information you want to access quickly on the device home page. Widgets are most often used on a desktop PC, tablet, mobile phone or laptop. You can customize widgets according to your needs, for example, add only the most important ones to the desktop, such as icons, buttons, toolbars, tabs, windows, address bars.

WiFi technology

WiFi networks are today's standard - they use the 2.4 and 5 GHz bands. WiFi technology is used for local connection of devices (LAN) and also mainly for internet connection. WiFi networks are primarily intended for households, antennas should be designed to transmit signals well from routers and modems towards the devices that connect to this network.

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